Sunday, August 20, 2017

Tiny MCU 3D Renderer Part 4: Gouraud Shading

Today, it's interpolating normals to render smooth lighting. That's right; Gouraud Shading in full effect. Two screenshots to start with; first is a view with diffuse disabled, to show the full effect of the shading. Followed by fully textured.
Surprising that the texture is so dark. But it is what it is. I think this test model has just about reached the end of its usefulness for the project. There's just one duty left for it to serve. Remember those gradients at the bottom of the image that were added in Part 2? It's time to put our friend here through some post-processing!

Saturday, August 12, 2017

Tiny MCU 3D Renderer Part 3: Textures and Perspective

I was surprised by how easy it was to interpolate over the texture coordinates, given the barycentric coordinate space. I have more boilerplate code to convert the mesh vertices into cgmath vectors than there is code to interpolate the triangles! I'll refactor it all away after the renderer's features begin to stabilize. With a little gamma and luminance love, I now have nearest-neighbor texture mapping:
The gamma correction was crucial, since this texture went through two separate processing passes; first, I dropped all chrominance information from the RGB leaving just the relative brightness; and second the global illumination was applied to the texture mapped geometry as you might imagine. To get it working right, the RGB components are transformed from Gamma Space to Linear Space prior to the luminance transformation. Then the texture stays in Linear Space until after the final illumination pass. The pixels are transformed back to Gamma Space as they are written to the frame buffer.

Friday, August 11, 2017

Tiny MCU 3D Renderer Part 2: Dithering

Dithering is an important post processing technique for color quantization, and is especially useful for smoothing gradients with a low precision color space. I got ahead of myself a little bit on the 3D renderer development, and decided to research and experiment with various dithering algorithms. The most popular algorithm is arguably Floyd-Steinberg, which is based upon error diffusion. I used this algorithm back in 2009 for an image processing side-project.

It's safe to say I've learned a bit more about dithering in the last 8 years. Most obviously that Floyd-Steinberg is not ideal for animations because error diffusion will cause an avalanche of artifacts over the temporal domain. A noisy animation could be nice - even artistic - if the noise was evenly distributed. Avoiding the grainy look may be a better option, however. To that end, Bayer's ordered dithering algorithm is commonly used. Unfortunately, the apparent pattern may be too distracting. Various deterministic noise functions are also useful (e.g. pink noise or blue noise ... definitely not white noise).

My first dithering attempt was simple: I would draw a smooth gradient from black to white, using only 2 stops: black at 0.0 and white at 1.0. It was immediately clear that I needed some gamma correction, because my gradient was far too bright overall (when compared to a linear gradient without dithering). Everything I know about gamma, I learned from this article; highly recommended read. This was the first decent dithered gradient I created, using 2 stops:
You'll have to stand pretty far away from the image, and maybe squint a bit to see how the gradient tones line up (note that gamma correction was performed with γ = 1.8, which looks correct on macOS and Windows 10). Not bad for two shades! Close up though, the pattern is a little too strong. It will look better when applied to an image with lower frequency components; the linear gradient is the same pattern of pixels repeated vertically. If applied to the head model, the dithering would probably look rather nice (TBD). But we can always do better!

Tuesday, August 8, 2017

Tiny MCU 3D Renderer Part 1

It's hard to believe that it has been two years since my last blog update. A lot has happened since then, but nothing to write about. I have done surprisingly little in the way of game development or hobby programming since js13k-2015. I experimented with Rust a bit, kept up on some minor maintenance work for my nodeJS Capstone bindings, and I've played a whole lot of Rocket League.

But today I want to share some progress on something that I have been working on periodically for a very long time, because I've been getting more serious about it recently. In the tradition of keeping up my personal motivation, it's time to start sharing what I've been doing. It's not much to look at, but here it is:

3D Renderer in Rust (100% Software)

This is rendered entirely in software using Rust. And, well, that's about all there is to it! Flat-shaded triangles rendered with orthographic projection. I have other screenshots from earlier stages of development, including a wireframe raster, and polygonal (as above) without depth correction. In this screenshot, I had just added a depth buffer which completes all of the geometry rendering work. Next steps are adding diffuse texture mapping and perspective projection. I'll get to that later.